Explanation of the presented statistics
Unemployment and underemployment
In 2016, 2,691,000 people were registered as unemployed in Germany. Compared to the previous year, the unemployed were 104,000 people less.
Underemployment, which also includes people in measures of labor market policy and short-term incapacity for work, in 2016 amounted to 3,581,000 on average. That was 50,000 less compared to the previous year. The fact that unemployment on average has declined more than underemployment is explained by the increasing relief from labor market policy instruments. In particular, measures for activation and vocational integration and the so-called “third-party funding”, in which participation in integration courses at the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) is recorded, are taken into account in particular. There were declines in the retirement period, the end of which was expiring at the end of 2015.
Development in unemployment insurance
Of the 2,691,000 unemployed, 822,000 or 31 per cent were served by an employment agency in the SGB III legal system. Compared to the previous year that is with 37,000 people less. A total of 788,000 individuals received an unemployment allowance in 2016, 46,000 less than in 2015.
Development in the basic job for job seekers
A total of around 4,310,000 eligible employees were served by a job center in the SGB II legal system. Compared to the previous year, this is a decline of 18,000. At 7.9 per cent, the share of those eligible to benefit for all persons living in Germany at working age was slightly below the previous year’s figure. In 2016, an average of 1,869,000 persons (69% of all unemployed) were registered as unemployed in the SGB II legal system. That was 67,000 less than last year. A majority of Arbeitslosengeld II recipients are not registered as unemployed. The reason for this is that these persons are employed, look after small children, care for relatives or are still in training.
Employment and employment subject to social insurance
Employment requiring social insurance continued to grow in 2016. According to provisional data from the Federal Statistical Office, the average annual activity rose by 429,000 to 43.49 million. Thus, employment reached its highest level since reunification.
As in previous years, the employment subject to social insurance has risen more sharply than employment. The other forms of employment, e.g. Minor employment or self-employment were mostly declining. In June 2016, 31.37 million workers were subject to social insurance. That was 602,000 more than a year before. The economy is only partly explaining the sharp rise in employment. Other factors such as sectoral change, a high labor market tension and immigration gained importance for employment and led to a stable uptrend.
The number of reported workplaces was 2015 at 655,000. That was 87,000 more than last year. In 2016, most of the vacancies were directed to workers in the areas of transport and logistics, sales, metal, machine and vehicle technology as well as health.
The BA-X, a seasonally-adjusted indicator of the demand for labor in Germany, was characterized by near-continuous growth in 2016 and was at the end of the year at 227 points.
Budget of the Federal Agency for Labor
The Federal Agency for Employment concluded the 2016 financial year with a surplus of EUR 5.4 billion. The budget for 2016 implied an increase of EUR 1.8 billion.
The good position on the labor market led to significantly lower expenditure in the course of the year. The high demand for labor led to a further decline in the number of unemployed. Expenditures for unemployment benefits were around EUR 1 billion less than planned, at EUR 14.4 billion. The good economic situation was also reflected in the expenses for insolvency money, which is 0.3 billion euros below expectations. The integration opportunities for unemployed people were good overall in 2016. Integration into the labor market has often been implemented without funding. However, people from abroad were particularly interested. The Bundesagentur für Arbeit, therefore, once again intensified its integration efforts into the training and labor market for this group of people. Among other things, it financed the participation of more than 233,000 people from Eritrea, Iraq, Iran and Syria in language courses at a cost of 0.3 billion euros. A total of € 8.1 billion was spent on the benefits of active employment promotion.
Employment and wages developed somewhat more positively than expected in the course of the year. There were € 0.2 billion more contributions to unemployment insurance than were provided for in the budget.
Of the realized result, around 4.9 billion euros will be transferred to the general reserve. The remaining funds are allocated to the specific reserves for insolvency allowance and winter employment subsidies.
Quelle: Bundesagentur für Arbeit